The structures of products were confirmed by physical and spectroscopic data such as; IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, Mass spectroscopy and C. H. N. analyses. In the IR spectra, the stretching frequency of aromatic CC is formed in the region between ν = 1490–1600 cm−1. The stretching vibration of C–H in the alkyl groups was appeared at region between ν = 2898–2930 cm−1. In the 1H NMR spectra, one cycloheximide solubility of CH–N has chemical shift in δ = 3.65–4.40 ppm. The signals around δ = 6.59–8.55 are assigned by protons of CHCH of aromatic rings. In the 13C NMR spectra, one carbon of C–N has chemical shift in δ = 52.1–55.1 ppm and the signal around δ = 74.1–77.1 is assigned by one carbon of CCl2 of aziridine ring. The Mass spectrum of product (2g) is indicated in Fig. 1. The peak with m/z = 322 related to molecular ion was confirmed the structure of this compound.
Fig. 21. Damage plots in cementitious coatings E-64-c different sizes under axial tensile loading: (a) 200 × 60 × 30 mm; (b) 200 × 60 × 40 mm; (c) 300 × 60 × 20 mm; (d) 400 × 100 × 20 mm.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
Fig. 22. Maximum bond stresses in cementitious coatings of different thicknesses under axial tensile loading.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
Fig. 23. Normal Bond stress distribution in cementitious coatings of Turner syndrome different thicknesses under axial tensile loading (εs = 0.5 × 10−3).Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
Fig. 24. Normal bond stress distribution in cementitious coatings of different lengths under axial tensile loading (εs = 0.5 × 10−3).Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
3.2. Pulp viscosity and Fock reactivity
Fig. 1. Viscosity and Fock reactivity as a function of pulp consistency during cellulase treatment. Cellulase charge of 1.5 mg/g, pH 4.8, 55 °C.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
3.3. Alpha cellulose, alkali solubility and yield
Alpha Sulfo-Cy5 NHS ester is one of the important quality parameters for dissolving pulp, which was listed in Table 1. As can be seen, the alpha cellulose kept constant during the cellulase treatment at various pulp consistency, and a slight decrease can be observed when extending the treatment time to 24 h, which may be caused by the cellulose degradation. Wang et al. (2014) also observed a decrease of alpha cellulose content when using endoglucanases rich cellulase treatment of bleached softwood pulp to upgrade for dissolving pulp.
Other pulp properties of cellulase treated pulp as a function of pulp consistency and treatment time.Pulp consistency (%)Time (h)Alpha cellulose (%)S10 (%)S18 (%)S10–S18 (%)Yield (%)3293.76.383.922.4699.7493.46.523.772.7599.52493.37.833.923.9199.910294.17.613.594.0299.9494.17.813.734.0899.82493.87.543.444.1099.520294.07.873.983.8999.6494.17.963.804.1699.52493.57.943.574.3799.2Without cellulase293.05.423.511.9199.9492.85.613.432.1899.72492.85.703.322.3899.6Full-size tableTable optionsView in workspaceDownload as CSV
Dissolving pulp; Cellulase; High consistency; Viscosity; Fock reactivity
Green and natural raw material, characterized as sustainable and compatible with the environment, is in high demand, in light of the depletion of petroleum resources (Dodds and Gross, 2007). Cellulose, as the most abundant biopolymer on earth, is a green raw material that can be used to produce many products, such as rayon, ABT-199 acetate, nitrocellulose and cellulose ether (Jahan et al., 2011 and Tian et al., 2014). The production of cellulose (known as dissolving pulp in the paper industry) from lignocellulosic biomass, is increasing, and this is particularly true in Canada and China (Miao et al., 2014 and Wang et al., 2015).
Endoglucanases rich cellulase can effectively attack the cellulose structure, which will increase its accessibility towards reactants and facilitates the xanthation reactions in the rayon manufacturing process. In the literature, many studies were carried out, for example: Ibarra et al. (2010) reported that the endoglucanase with cellulose binding domain was effective in increasing the reactivity and decreasing viscosity of dissolving pulp. Miao et al. (2014) observed the enhancement of accessibility and reactivity of hardwood dissolving pulp when using cellulase treatment. Wang et al. (2014) reported that the high reactivity (about 80%) was achieved by endoglucanases rich cellulase treatment when upgrading bleached softwood paper grade pulp to dissolving pulp.
For Pe extraction a protocol used by Marcati et al., 2014 was followed, involving a two-step membrane PD123319 process. First an ultrafiltration by 1.5 * 106 Da membrane, then the resulting permeate filtered by 10 * 103 Daltons membrane to recover from the retentate the Pe. Finally the Pe was dried (24 h) using a freeze drier.
2.6. Fourier Transformed Infra-red (FTIR) analysis
FTIR attenuated total reflectance (ATR) spectra was collected on a PerkinElmer Spectrum Two instrument equipped with a diamond crystal ATR reflectance cell with a DTGS detector scanning over the wavenumber range of 4000–450 cm−1 at a resolution of 4 cm−1. Approximately 3–5 mg of finely powdered freeze-dried biomass, Pe or EPS extract was prepared in the same manner as for conventional biochemical analysis (described in Sections 2.2 and 2.4) and was applied to the surface of the crystal and then pressed onto the crystal head. Three replicates (each consisting of an melanin average of 10 scans) for each sample were taken and the results averaged. Background correction scans of ambient air were made prior to each sample scan. Scans were recorded using the spectroscopic software Spectrum (version 10. PerkinElmer, Germany). Spectra were background corrected for ambient air. Ethanol (70%) was used to clean the diamond ATR between samples.
During the thermophilic AD of WAS, converting sludge particles to the supernatant is the first step and also the limiting step, those soluble matters would be finally utilized by anaerobic microbes, accompanied with the sludge reduction (Silvestre et al., 2014). The composition of organic matters in the supernatant before and after the supplementation of FeCl3 with different dosing time was investigated in Fig. 4. In the initial stage, acetate, butyrate and unknown organic matters (such as ethanol, amino acids and long chain fatty SB203580 (LCFA) etc.) were the main component in SCOD (910 ± 20 mg/L), which contributed to about 22%, 41% and 26%, respectively. The SCOD and its component changed significantly after 12 days’ digestion with a time interval of 6 days in terms of R6 (dosing time at the 144th hour after the experimental startup). Compared with R1, an enhanced SCOD was achieved in R4 (22,280 ± 400 mg/L), while that in R2, R3, R5 and R6 reduced by 7%, 3%, 12% and 10%, respectively. Particularly, acetate in all the treatment groups with FeCl3 additive was lower than that in R1 (7020 ± 310 mg/L), indicating that the supplementation of FeCl3 could accelerate the decomposition of acetate. At the end of the digestion (43 days), the main component was the unknown organic matters, which accounted for 76% in R4. The acetate in R1 also kept in a high level (4110 ± 260 mg/L, P(0.05) = 2.45 × 10−13 < 0.05) in comparison with 1100 ± 110 mg/L (R2), 1110 ± 140 mg/L (R3), 1550 ± 160 mg/L (R4), 2480 ± 190 mg/L (R5) and 1050 ± 120 mg/L (R6), respectively, which confirmed that acetic acid was the main inhibitor and could be disinhibited by the supplementation of FeCl3. Acetate, propionate, butyrate and valerate were summed as VFAs, and the contribution proportion of VFAs in SCOD was shown in Table 3. With the time extension, the proportion of the FeCl3 added groups showed a declined trend, while that in R1 maintained in a high level (from 62.78% to 38.47% in R1) and inhibited the biogas production. In contrast, R4 achieved the lowest proportion (19.44%) at the end of digestion, confirming that the effective disinhibition of excessive VFAs could be obtained with the dosing time at 72nd hour.
A total of 49 fungal strains were evaluated in terms of their ability to degrade, decolorize and detoxify the wastewaters of the olive oil industry. Among the wood-rot fungi examined, S. hirsutum CCBAS 608, T. versicolor CCBAS 614 and T. lacteus CCBAS 616 produced most Ritonavir (0.12–0.14 g dry weight per 100 ml); in contrast, H. alpestre CCBAS 654, L. castoreus LGAM 898 and T. panuoides LGAM 899 exhibited the lowest mycelium production (0.02–0.04 g dry weight per 100 ml; Supplementary Fig. S1). Furthermore, I. nodulosus CCBAS556, L. edodes LGAM 887 and LGAM 897, M. excoriata LGAM 318 and P. eryngii LGAM 219 and LGAM 220 failed to grow in the OMW-based substrate and were not further studied. Considering the fact that other strains of L. edodes and P. eryngii ( D’Annibale et al., 2004, Koutrotsios and Zervakis, 2014 and Ntougias et al., 2012) were reported to produce abundant biomass in olive mill effluents, the inability of these particular species to grow in the frame of the present study indicates strain-specificity in OMW degradation.