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1 year ago

cycloheximide solubility The structures of products were

The structures of products were confirmed by physical and spectroscopic data such as; IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, Mass spectroscopy and C. H. N. analyses. In the IR spectra, the stretching frequency of aromatic CC is formed in the region between ν = 1490–1600 cm−1. The stretching vibration of C–H in the alkyl groups was appeared at region between ν = 2898–2930 cm−1. In the 1H 'cycloheximide NMR spectra, one cycloheximide solubility of CH–N has chemical shift in δ = 3.65–4.40 ppm. The signals around δ = 6.59–8.55 are assigned by protons of CHCH of aromatic rings. In the 13C NMR spectra, one carbon of C–N has chemical shift in δ = 52.1–55.1 ppm and the signal around δ = 74.1–77.1 is assigned by one carbon of CCl2 of aziridine ring. The Mass spectrum of product (2g) is indicated in Fig. 1. The peak with m/z = 322 related to molecular ion was confirmed the structure of this compound.

1 year ago

Fig xA Damage plots in cementitious coatings

Fig. 21. Damage plots in cementitious coatings E-64-c different sizes under axial tensile loading: (a) 200 × 60 × 30 mm; (b) 200 × 60 × 40 mm; (c) 300 × 60 × 20 mm; (d) 400 × 100 × 20 mm.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
Fig. 22. Maximum bond stresses in cementitious coatings of different thicknesses under axial tensile loading.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
Fig. 23. Normal Bond stress distribution in cementitious coatings of Turner syndrome different thicknesses under axial tensile loading (εs = 0.5 × 10−3).Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
Fig. 24. Normal bond stress distribution in cementitious coatings of different lengths under axial tensile loading (εs = 0.5 × 10−3).Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide

1 year ago

Pulp viscosity and Fock reactivity

3.2. Pulp viscosity and Fock reactivity
Fig. 1. Viscosity and Fock reactivity as a function of pulp consistency during cellulase treatment. Cellulase charge of 1.5 mg/g, pH 4.8, 55 °C.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
3.3. Alpha cellulose, alkali solubility and yield
Alpha Sulfo-Cy5 NHS ester is one of the important quality parameters for dissolving pulp, which was listed in Table 1. As can be seen, the alpha cellulose kept constant during the cellulase treatment at various pulp consistency, and a slight decrease can be observed when extending the treatment time to 24 h, which may be caused by the cellulose degradation. Wang et al. (2014) also observed a decrease of alpha cellulose content when using endoglucanases rich cellulase treatment of bleached softwood pulp to upgrade for dissolving pulp.
Table 1.
Other pulp properties of cellulase treated pulp as a function of pulp consistency and treatment time.Pulp consistency (%)Time (h)Alpha cellulose (%)S10 (%)S18 (%)S10–S18 (%)Yield (%)3293.76.383.922.4699.7493.46.523.772.7599.52493.37.833.923.9199.910294.17.613.594.0299.9494.17.813.734.0899.82493.87.543.444.1099.520294.07.873.983.8999.6494.17.963.804.1699.52493.57.943.574.3799.2Without cellulase293.05.423.511.9199.9492.85.613.432.1899.72492.85.703.322.3899.6Full-size tableTable optionsView in workspaceDownload as CSV

1 year ago

The addition of Cu Zn

Dissolving pulp; Cellulase; High consistency; Viscosity; Fock reactivity
1. Introduction
Green and natural raw material, characterized as sustainable and compatible with the environment, is in high demand, in light of the depletion of petroleum resources (Dodds and Gross, 2007). Cellulose, as the most abundant biopolymer on earth, is a green raw material that can be used to produce many products, such as rayon, ABT-199 acetate, nitrocellulose and cellulose ether (Jahan et al., 2011 and Tian et al., 2014). The production of cellulose (known as dissolving pulp in the paper industry) from lignocellulosic biomass, is increasing, and this is particularly true in Canada and China (Miao et al., 2014 and Wang et al., 2015).
Endoglucanases rich cellulase can effectively attack the cellulose structure, which will increase its accessibility towards reactants and facilitates the xanthation reactions in the rayon manufacturing process. In the literature, many studies were carried out, for example: Ibarra et al. (2010) reported that the endoglucanase with cellulose binding domain was effective in increasing the reactivity and decreasing viscosity of dissolving pulp. Miao et al. (2014) observed the enhancement of accessibility and reactivity of hardwood dissolving pulp when using cellulase treatment. Wang et al. (2014) reported that the high reactivity (about 80%) was achieved by endoglucanases rich cellulase treatment when upgrading bleached softwood paper grade pulp to dissolving pulp.

1 year ago

Microalgae cultivation Microalgal analysis The cell concentration was estimated

For Pe extraction a protocol used by Marcati et al., 2014 was followed, involving a two-step membrane PD123319 process. First an ultrafiltration by 1.5 * 106 Da membrane, then the resulting permeate filtered by 10 * 103 Daltons membrane to recover from the retentate the Pe. Finally the Pe was dried (24 h) using a freeze drier.
2.6. Fourier Transformed Infra-red (FTIR) analysis
FTIR attenuated total reflectance (ATR) spectra was collected on a PerkinElmer Spectrum Two instrument equipped with a diamond crystal ATR reflectance cell with a DTGS detector scanning over the wavenumber range of 4000–450 cm−1 at a resolution of 4 cm−1. Approximately 3–5 mg of finely powdered freeze-dried biomass, Pe or EPS extract was prepared in the same manner as for conventional biochemical analysis (described in Sections 2.2 and 2.4) and was applied to the surface of the crystal and then pressed onto the crystal head. Three replicates (each consisting of an melanin average of 10 scans) for each sample were taken and the results averaged. Background correction scans of ambient air were made prior to each sample scan. Scans were recorded using the spectroscopic software Spectrum (version 10. PerkinElmer, Germany). Spectra were background corrected for ambient air. Ethanol (70%) was used to clean the diamond ATR between samples.

1 year ago

Analytical methods EEM fluorescence spectra and FRI analysis

During the thermophilic AD of WAS, converting sludge particles to the supernatant is the first step and also the limiting step, those soluble matters would be finally utilized by anaerobic microbes, accompanied with the sludge reduction (Silvestre et al., 2014). The composition of organic matters in the supernatant before and after the supplementation of FeCl3 with different dosing time was investigated in Fig. 4. In the initial stage, acetate, butyrate and unknown organic matters (such as ethanol, amino acids and long chain fatty SB203580 (LCFA) etc.) were the main component in SCOD (910 ± 20 mg/L), which contributed to about 22%, 41% and 26%, respectively. The SCOD and its component changed significantly after 12 days’ digestion with a time interval of 6 days in terms of R6 (dosing time at the 144th hour after the experimental startup). Compared with R1, an enhanced SCOD was achieved in R4 (22,280 ± 400 mg/L), while that in R2, R3, R5 and R6 reduced by 7%, 3%, 12% and 10%, respectively. Particularly, acetate in all the treatment groups with FeCl3 additive was lower than that in R1 (7020 ± 310 mg/L), indicating that the supplementation of FeCl3 could accelerate the decomposition of acetate. At the end of the digestion (43 days), the main component was the unknown organic matters, which accounted for 76% in R4. The acetate in R1 also kept in a high level (4110 ± 260 mg/L, P(0.05) = 2.45 × 10−13 < 0.05) in comparison with 1100 ± 110 mg/L (R2), 1110 ± 140 mg/L (R3), 1550 ± 160 mg/L (R4), 2480 ± 190 mg/L (R5) and 1050 ± 120 mg/L (R6), respectively, which confirmed that acetic acid was the main inhibitor and could be disinhibited by the supplementation of FeCl3. Acetate, propionate, butyrate and valerate were summed as VFAs, and the contribution proportion of VFAs in SCOD was shown in Table 3. With the time extension, the proportion of the FeCl3 added groups showed a declined trend, while that in R1 maintained in a high level (from 62.78% to 38.47% in R1) and inhibited the biogas production. In contrast, R4 achieved the lowest proportion (19.44%) at the end of digestion, confirming that the effective disinhibition of excessive VFAs could be obtained with the dosing time at 72nd hour.

1 year ago

ABT-538 After the initial evaluation of all fungi on

A total of 49 fungal strains were evaluated in terms of their ability to degrade, decolorize and detoxify the wastewaters of the olive oil industry. Among the wood-rot fungi examined, S. hirsutum CCBAS 608, T. versicolor CCBAS 614 and T. lacteus CCBAS 616 produced most Ritonavir (0.12–0.14 g dry weight per 100 ml); in contrast, H. alpestre CCBAS 654, L. castoreus LGAM 898 and T. panuoides LGAM 899 exhibited the lowest mycelium production (0.02–0.04 g dry weight per 100 ml; Supplementary Fig. S1). Furthermore, I. nodulosus CCBAS556, L. edodes LGAM 887 and LGAM 897, M. excoriata LGAM 318 and P. eryngii LGAM 219 and LGAM 220 failed to grow in the OMW-based substrate and were not further studied. Considering the fact that other strains of L. edodes and P. eryngii ( D’Annibale et al., 2004, Koutrotsios and Zervakis, 2014 and Ntougias et al., 2012) were reported to produce abundant biomass in olive mill effluents, the inability of these particular species to grow in the frame of the present study indicates strain-specificity in OMW degradation.

1 year ago

Table Comparison between thermal conductivity enhancements

Table 5.
Comparison between thermal conductivity enhancements reported in literature review and result of this Decanoylcarnitine work related to vol.% = 1.Author(s)NanofluidConcentrationNanoparticle size (nm)EnhancementThis workAg/WEG501% volumetric40–5037%Chon et al. [34]Alumina/water4% volumetric5030%Timofeeva et al. [35]Alumina/water5% volumetric4010%Teng et al. [36]Alumina/water2% by weight2014.7Beck et al. [37]Alumina/water4% volumetric1223%Yang et al. [38]Graphite/oil2% by weight20–4029%Utomo et al. [39]Titania/water4% volumetric50–605%Utomo et al. [39]Alumina/water4% volumetric20–3010%Zhang et al. [40]Copper/ethyleneglycol5% volumetric3311.5%Xie et al. [41]SiC/water4.2% volumetric2515.9%Rezazadeh et al. [42]Ag/water1% volumetric20–4029%Lee et al. [43]Alumina/water3.5% volumetric20–5012%Full-size tableTable optionsView in workspaceDownload as CSV
According to Table 5, the biologically-produced nanofluid at vol.% = 1 has relatively higher thermal conductivity rather than other nanofluid, even in comparison with two-step Ag/water nanofluid [42]. According to Table 5, carpels can be stated that, other nanofluids at volumetric concentration higher than 1% have lower thermal conductivity enhancement comparing to the results of this work at vol.% = 1. For instance, Timofeeva et al. [35] has reported the thermal conductivity enhancement of about 10% for alumina/water at vol.% = 5, while result of this work shows that thermal conductivity can be enhanced up to 37% at vol.% = 1. This is an evidence that Ag/WEG50 biologically-produced nanofluid can have potential applications in heat transfer media due to its relatively higher thermal conductivity.

1 year ago

Fig xA Relationship between ucr ucr

In this study, it Splitomicin is firmly confirmed that the steady-state CHF correlations against outlet and inlet subcoolings, Eqs. (21) and (22), can delineate not only the authors’ published CHF data (3206 points) for the HORIZONTAL and VERTICAL SUS304 test tubes with the wide ranges of inlet pressures (Pin = 159 kPa to 1.1 MPa), inner diameters (d = 2–12 mm), heated lengths (L = 22–150 mm) and flow velocities (u = 4.0–13.3 m/s) [17], [18], [24], [25], [26], [27], [28], [29] and [30] within ±15% difference for 30 K ? ΔTsub,out ? 140 K and 40 K ? ΔTsub,in ? 151 K but also the flow transient CHF for the circular tube of 6 mm inner diameter obtained in this work within −34.1% to 15.4% and −39.7% to 0.55% differences, respectively. We have supposed that the expressions of flow velocity map (ucr/ucr,st versus α) and critical heat flux one (qcr,sub/q0 versus α) at flow transient CHF against steady-state critical heat flux would be very useful to discuss the mechanism of the transient critical heat flux of subcooled water flow boiling caused by a rapid decrease in velocity, which would occur due to the hydro-dynamic instability suggested by Kutateladze [31] and Zuber [32] or due to the heterogeneous spontaneous nucleation at the lower limit of the heterogeneous spontaneous nucleation temperature [33]. The ratios of flow velocity at flow transient CHF point to flow velocity calculated from Eq. (22) with initial heat flux, q0, by a try-and-error method, ucr/ucr,st, and ossification of flow transient CHF, qcr,sub = q0, to steady-state critical heat flux calculated from Eq. (22) with the flow velocity at flow transient CHF point, (qcr,sub/qcr,sub,st), for the SUS304 circular test tube of d = 6 mm and L = 59.5–59.7 mm with inlet liquid temperatures, Tin, of 290.12–308.51 K at the initial flow velocities, u0, of 6.9, 9.9 and 13.3 m/s are shown versus the deceleration caused by a rapid decrease in velocity, α, at initial heat flux, q0, which is equivalent to the CHF at the flow velocity of 4 m/s, (qcr,sub,st)u=4m/s, in Fig. 18. The experimental data of ucr/ucr,st and qcr,sub/qcr,sub,st for the SUS304 test tube of d = 6 mm with the rough finished inner surface can be expressed for the α ranging from −7.357 m/s2 to −0.326 m/s2 by the following correlations:equation(26)ucrucr,st=-0.275α+0.794forα≤-0.75m/s2equation(27)ucrucr,st=1for-0.75m/s2<α<-0.326m/s2equation(28)qcr,subqcr,sub,st=0.05α+1.038forα<-0.75m/s2equation(29)qcr,subqcr,sub,st=1for-0.75m/s2<α<-0.326m/s2

1 year ago

Cooke and Kandlikar fabricated various microchannel structures on Si wafer

Summary CID 2011756 features of boiling heat transfer enhancement surfaces fabricated using chemical processes.Refs.Base surface materialsFabrication techniqueGeometry of surfacesFluid for boiling tests[104]Si waferChemical etchingRectangular channel arrays with pore structures in trapezoidal shapeFC-72[46]CopperPhotolithographyMicrogroovedWater[105]Si waferEENanowire-arrayedWater[107]Aluminum alloy (6061)AnodizationNanoporous structureWater[108]Aluminum alloy (6061)AnodizationThree-dimensionally interconnected sponge-like nephridium porous structureWater[109], [110], [111] and [112]Zircaloy-4AnodizationMicro/nanoscale structureWater[114]Ag–Si, Au–glass, and Cu substratesElectrochemical deposition technique using AAO membraneNanowire-arrayedWater[115]Si waferMetal particle-assisted electroless chemical etchingNanowire-arrayedWater[116]Si wafer deposited with Ti Cu and Au thin filmsMetal particle-assisted electroless chemical etchingNanowire-arrayedPF-5060Full-size tableTable optionsView in workspaceDownload as CSV